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FORA 400

FORA 400 is a water quenched martensitic steel, with a typical hardness of 400HB (42.5 HRC), constituting a real answer to abrasive wear.  Thanks to its toughness, its elevated hardness, its high yield strength, FORA 400 can be used wherever resistance to wear by sliding or by moderate impacts is required.

Compared to conventional steels, such as S355, FORA 400 offers a real benefit to equipment life times and allows a significant thickness reduction in designs since its wear resistance is up to 3 times longer than S355 grade.

Moreover, FORA 400 is very easily welded and has good forming properties thereby contributing to ease of fabrication.

Typical Applications:  This steel is particularly suitable for applications in:

·         Quarries, construction and earthmoving: skimmers, crushers, screens, bunkers, bulldozers etc.

·         Cement plants:  buckets, crushers and bunkers.

·         Mines:  excavator, winding and discharging machines, conveyors, etc.

·         Iron and steel industries:  Bunkers, various casing, guide and shifting plates, etc.

Chemical Analysis

Guaranteed maximum values (% weight)

C

Mn

P

S

Cr

Ni

Mo

B

0.20

1.4

0.02

0.003

1.0

0.5

0.2

0.003


Th = 4/20mm (0.16”/0.78”)          Ceq ≤ 0.45%     

Ceq = C +  Mn  +  Cr + Mo + V  +  Ni + Cu

                   6                5                   15

Th = 10.01/50mm (0.78”/1.97”)    Ceq ≤ 0.56%     

Th > 50.01mm (>1.97”)               Ceq ≤ 0.64%     


Mechanical Properties

Typical values

 

Hardness

Yield

Strength ¹

 

UTS ¹

E 5.65 √S

(%)

KCV Transv.

- 20°C (- 4°F)

KCV Transv.

- 40°C (- 40°F)

400HB

1100

N/mm ²

1350

N/mm ²

13

35J/cm²(t=15mm)

65J/cm²(t= 5mm)

20J/cm²(t=15mm)

45J/cm²(t= 5mm)

42.5 HRC

160 Ksi

195 Ksi

13

21ft.lbs(t=15mm)

38ft.lbs(t= 5mm)

12ft.lbs(t=15mm)

27ft.lbs(t= 5mm)

Guaranteed hardness in delivery condition: 360/440HB (39/47 HRC)

¹ Prismatic tensile probes

Processing

Cutting

All the classical thermal cutting processes are compatible with FORA 400 (gas, plasma, laser). 

Plates between 4mm to 40mm (0.16” to 1.6”) thick do not require preheating provided that thermal cutting is performed at a temperature greater than 10°C (50°F).  Where this is not the case or where the plates are thicker than 40mm (1.6”) preheating at 100 - 150°C (200-300°F) is recommended.

Thickness →

Cutting Temperature ↓

4 - 40mm

(0.16” – 1.6”)

> 40mm

> 1.6"

≥ 10°C (50°F)

No preheating

Preheating at 100 - 150°C (212 - 302°F)

< 10°C (50°F)

Preheating at 100 - 150°C (212 - 302°F)

Water jet cutting or shearing can also be used.

Machining

Drilling and milling should be performed with supercarburized cobalt high-speed steel type HSSCO, using wherever possible an oil lubricant.  However, classical high-speed steels can be used.  The typical cutting parameters are:

Drilling

Ø = 10mm

Ø = 20mm

Ø = 30mm

Cutting Speed      m/min

                             ft/min

6 - 12

20 - 40

6 - 12

20 - 40

6 - 12

20 - 40

Rotational Speed  rev/min

190 - 380

90 - 190

60 - 120

Feed                     mm/rev

0,1

0,2

0,3

 

Tapping

Ø = 10mm

Ø = 20mm

Ø = 30mm

Cutting Speed      m/min

                             ft/min

2 - 4

6.5 - 13

2 - 4

6.5 - 13

2 - 4

6.5 - 13

Rotational Speed rev/min

60 – 120

30 – 60

20 - 40

 

 

Milling

Depth

(mm)     (inch)

Cutting Speed

(m/min)

Reed

(mm/tooth)

HSSCO

AR 12.0.5.5

(T15)

1      (0.04)

4     (0.16)

8     (0.31)

12 – 15

10 – 12

7 - 9

0.08

0.10

0.15





Bending

Thanks to the high refining level of the steel (low sulphur and phosphorus contents), FORA 400 is easy to bend provided the following conditions are respected:

·         Dressing (or grinding) of the ridges caused by gas cutting to limit hardened zones.

·         Sufficiently powerful equipment.

·         Respect of minimum forming radius.

For plates below 20mm (0.8”) thickness, forming conditions are summarised in the following table; beyond 20mm (0.8”), consult us.

 

Perpendicular to the

Rolling direction

Parallel to the

Rolling direction

Bending internal

Radius R, (mini)

3 x th

4 x th

Die opening V (mini)

10 x th

12 x th

Within these allowable bending parameters, the force required to form a plate is function of the bent length, the metal thickness, die opening, die form (V or U), punch form etc..

The following table shows the bending forces, for the minimum die opening (V=10th), required for V bending plates for 1m bent.

* (± 10%)

Bending force required

per meter of bend*

  Thickness

Tons/m

5mm (0.20”)

90

10mm (0.40”)

175

15mm (0.60”)

260

20mm (0.78”)

350

FORA 400 steel is unsuitable for hot forming at a temperature higher than 200°C (400°F).

Welding

Thanks to its chemical analysis with a low carbon content, FORA 400 shows very good welding characteristics.  It can be welded in easy conditions in total safety.

Weld Preparation

Weld surface must be dry and clean and superficially ground in order to eliminate any rust, scale, grease or paint traces as well as any gas-cutting ridges.

Weld Process

Any conventional fusion welding method can be used, such as submerged arc welding (SAW), manual

metal arc welding (SMAW), flux core wire arc welding (FCAW), MIG, MAG (GMAW) and TIG (GTAW).

Heat input should be limited to 10 - 30 kj/cm with maximum interpass temperature of 200°C (392°F).


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